Introduction to PLC programming - Black keyhole

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Introduction to PLC programming

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PLC(programmable logic controllers) is an industrial computer to monitor the inputs and depend on their program or logic that would control the state whether it is Turn on or Turn off to automate the machine. we couldn't able use raspberry pi or Arduino to monitor or control industrial process that would require high-end voltage and power consumption.

PLC will be used in the Automation system to control the process as well as if we want to control a more complex process that would lead to connect multiple PLC to the central computer.   

Following things are the basic elements of  PLC controllers

     1. Input modules or points

     2. Central processing units(CPU)

     3. output modules or points 

     4. Programming device

The input module or points of PLC depends on the input device use with PLC. Some input modules or points correspond to Digital input whether it will on or off. Sometimes modules or points correspond to analog signals depends on their input device.   

The main Primary function of PLC is to convert its input circuitry signals from various sensors, switches into logical signals by its CPU. The CPU evaluates its input, output, and other variables status into its stored program. then it will send the signal to output modules.  

PLC software and programming

 PLC is programmed with one of the following programmings languages:

    1. Ladder Diagrams

         It is most primarily used for logic control operations. as well as the Electrician and Technicians can easily understand this programming language. This is the most commonly used programming language and widely used by most of the PLC suppliers.

2.  Function Block Diagram

     This programming language is most commonly used in intensive analog control operations(PID). It is  widely used in high-end PLC's

3. Sequential Function chart

      It highly used in batch control operations and available only in high-end PLC's

4. Structured Text

     It is primarily used by PLC programmers with a computer language background and is commonly used in "high-end" PLC's.

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  • Rugged and designed to withstand vibrations, temperature, humidity, and noise.

  • Have interfacing for inputs and outputs already inside the controller.

  •  Easily programmed and have an easily understood programming language.


  •  Too much work required in connecting wires.

  • – Difficulty with changes or replacements.

  • Difficulty in finding errors; requiring a skillful workforce.

  • – When a problem occurs, hold-up time is indefinite, usually long.     

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