Clock timing and Serial vs parallel representation - Black keyhole

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Clock timing and Serial vs parallel representation

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Clock Timing

Most Digital circuit require precise timing to function properly.  Usually a clock circuit that

generate a series of high and low pulses at a fixed frequency. the clock is also used to push a bit

of data through Digital circuitry.  the period of clock pulse is related to its frequency by T=1/F.

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Serial Transmission

 Difference Between Serial and Parallel Communication (with Comparison  Chart) - Circuit Globe

(picture from Google)

binary information can be transmitted from one location to another in a day serial or parallel manner. 

the serial format uses a single electrical conductor for data transfer each bit from the binary number

occupies a separate clock period.  with the change from one bit to another acquiring at each ruling or

knowledge hunter. 

in computer system serial communications are used to transfer data between two computer

of keyboard and computer.

Parallel Transmission

Difference Between Serial and Parallel Communication (with Comparison  Chart) - Circuit Globe 

(Picture from Google)

parallel transmission uses  separate conductor for each bit. in parallel transmission the entire word will

send in one clock cycle not eight clock cycles sau parallel transmission is eight time faster than serial


It uses multilayer data and control bus to transmit data and control instructions  between one

microprocessor to another microprocessorSerial transmission is usually considered slower but slightly

more accurate, especially with longer cables. Data is usually sent in a “line” one after another.

Parallel transmission (traditionally) had 8 simultaneous pieces of data going at the SAME TIME which

made it faster but needed to be “synced” to work, so cables needed to be shorter to avoid issues.

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Why is serial transmission more ideal for sending data over large distances than parallel transmission?

Crosstalk can be solved by shielding the wires from each other, further driving up the cost. Difference in propagation time will make real parallel communication impossible, data won’t be synchronous at the other end. Propagation delay could be matched by tightly controlling the wire lengths and geometries, that’s problematic for really long wires. Independent serial communication on them is easily possible though.

Furthermore it seems that as technology improves, the bandwidth of a copper pair doubles every now and then, resembling Moore’s law for silicon devices. Raw material prices usually go up. As a consequence serial communication gets cheaper and faster with time.

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