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what is superconductors and superconductor example

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Super conductors are substances or materials that show zero resistivity and infinite conductivity. Wikipedia says :

Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic flux fields occurring in certain materials, called superconductors, when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.


Superconductors have many uses - the most obvious being as very efficient conductors; if the national grid were made of superconductors rather than aluminium, then the savings would be enormous - there would be no need to transform the electricity to a higher voltage (this lowers the current, which reduces energy loss to heat) and then back down again.
Superconducting magnets are also more efficient in generating electricity than conventional copper wire generators - in fact, a superconducting generator about half the size of a copper wire generator is about 99% efficient; typical generators are around 50% efficient.


This means that, unlike the more familiar conductors such as copper or steel, a superconductor can carry a current indefinitely without losing any energy. They also have several other very important properties, such as the fact that no magnetic field can exist within a superconductor.

Superconductors already have drastically changed the world of medicine with the advent of MRI machines, which have meant a reduction in exploratory surgery. Power utilities, electronics companies, the military, transportation, and theoretical physics have all benefited strongly from the discovery of these materials.

To this day, the largest successful applications of superconductors remains the powerful electromagnets used in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) systems (over 22,000MRI magnets made) and research magnets, and the RF accelerator cavities used in high energy physics experiments.

Applications of Superconductors

Superconductors are used in a variety of applications, but most notably within the structure of the Large Hadron Collider. The tunnels that contain the beams of charged particles are surrounded by tubes containing powerful superconductors. The supercurrents that flow through the superconductors generate an intense magnetic field, through electromagnetic induction, that can be used to accelerate and direct the team as desired.

In addition, superconductors exhibit the Meissner effect in which they cancel all magnetic flux inside the material, becoming perfectly diamagnetic (discovered in 1933). In this case, the magnetic field lines actually travel around the cooled superconductor. It is this property of superconductors which is frequently used in magnetic levitation experiments, such as the quantum locking seen in quantum levitation. In other words, if Back to the Future style hoverboards ever become a reality. In a less mundane application, superconductors play a role in modern advancements in magnetic levitation trains, which provide a powerful possibility for high-speed public transport that is based on electricity (which can be generated using renewable energy) in contrast to non-renewable current options like airplanes, cars, and coal-powered trains.   


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